Bio Study Guide Essay

Submitted By kaminsk5
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Pages: 17

BIOL 1030 STUDY NOTES

Prokaryotes * Bacteria (no nucleus or membrane bound organelles) * Archaea
Eukaryotes
* Eukarya (true nucleus and organelles)
Autotrophic
* Plants (photosynthesis) & some protists (single celled organisms)
Heterotrophic
* Animals * Fungi
Heterotrophic Protists (Protozoans) * No common ancestor * Diplomonads (double celled) * Cilliates (two nuclei)—paramecium * Unikonta * Amoeba * Choanoflagelates (FIRST COMMON ANCESTOR)
Animal Characteristics * Multicellular * No cell walls * Heterotrophic * Directional motion (move under own will) * Tissues develop from 2 or 3 germ layers

Phyla 1. Porifera (sponges) 2. Cnidaria (jelly fish, anemones, corals) 3. Echinodermata (sea stars) 4. Chordata (humans, dogs) 5. Nematoda (round worms) 6. Arthropoda (insects) 7. Platyhelminthes (flat worms) 8. Brachiopoda (lampshells) 9. Annelida (segmented worms) 10. Mollusca (snails, slugs, squids)
Tissues
* Parazoa (no true tissues) –PORIFERA * Eumetazoa (true tissues) –ALL OTHER PHYLA
PORIFERA
* Sponges * The choanoflagellates and they are colonial protists * All are attached to a substrate * No true tissues * Types of Cells: * Pinacoderm (skin) * Pinacocytes (protective cells) * Porocytes (channels into the waterfor movement) * Mesohyl- Spongocytes (skeletal element) * Choanoderm * Choanocytes (ring of microvilli * Each cell is totipotent not dependent on each other, able to change, for asexual reproduction
CNIDARIA
* Jellyfish, anemones, corals * Gastrovascular Cavity * Diploblastic (2 true tissues) * Space between is filled with mesoglea * Cnidocytes (specialized stinging cells)
Fates of the Blastopore (For 3 tissue layers) * Protosome-mouth forms first * Spiral cleavage * Determinate development * Deuterosome-mouth forms second, anus forms first * Radial cleavage * Indeterminate development * Echinodems and Chordates
ECHINODERMS
* Deuterosome * All marine animals * Larvae have bilateral symmetry * Adults have radial symmetry * Closed circulatory system * Water Vascular system for: * Locomotion * Gas exchange * Circulation * Prey capture (tube feet) * Endoskeleton * Regeneration

CHORDATA * Deuterosome * Dorsal hollow nerve cord (formed from ectoderm) * Notochord * Post anal tail * Pharayngeal gill arches/slits * SUBPHYLA * Vertebrates * Closed circulatory system * Cephalochordata (lancelets) * Earliest chordates * Open circulatory system * Filter feeding * Urochordata (tunicates-looks like a sponge) * No notochord or tail in adult * Open circulatory system
Protosome Growth Patterns: * Lophotrochozoans- ANNELIDS AND MOLLUSKS * Grow by extension of skeleton * Trochophore larva * Lophophore feeding structure * Ecdysozoans-NEMATODES AND ARTHROPODS * Grow by moulting their cuticle

NEMATODA * Protosomes * Ecdysozoans * Pseudocoelom * Hydrostatic Skeleton * Round worms * Free living and parasitic * Covered in a cuticle * NOT an exoskeleton

ARTHROPODA * Ecdysozoans * Protosomes * Open circulatory system * Internal gills * All have an exoskeleton with jointed appendages * Segmented-cephalothorax, abdomen, thorax * SUBPHYLA: * MYRIAPODA * Centipedes and millipede * exoskeletons * homonomous segmentation, except for head region * legs are unbranched…cent-1leg/segment mill-2leg/segment * CHELICERIFORM * Spiders, mites, scorpions, ticks * 2 tagmata (anterior cephalothorax, posterior abdomen) *…