Bio Study Guide Essay

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STUDY GUIDE #1
This study guide is to help review the material and main concepts presented in class. However, this is not necessarily a comprehensive list. Please be sure to review notes and worksheets from class, labs and their purposes, relevant textbook chapters outlines, and any other relevant materials. ● Levels of organization
○ Biosphere
○ Ecosystem
○ Community
○ Population
○ Species
○ Multicellular organism
○ Organ System
○ Organ
○ Tissue
○ Cell
○ Organelle
○ Molecule
○ Atom
○ Subatomic particle
● Domains of Life:
○ Bacteria
■ Unicellular
■ Get nutrients from absorption and Photosynthesis
■ DNA is not within nucleus
○ Archaea
■ Unicellular
■ Get nutrients solely from absorption
■ DNA is not within nucleus
■ Lives in EXTREME environments
○ Eukarya
■ Protista
● Unicellular
● Gets nutrients from absorption, ingestion, AND photosynthesis
● Diverse AND Simple (Amoeba to Kelps)
■ Fungi
● Multicellular
● Gets nutrients from digestion AND absorption from the outside











environment.
● AKA decomposers
■ Plantae
● Multicellular
● Gets nutrients from Photosynthesis
● Roots, Stems, and Leaves are the main producers of sugar
■ Animalia
● Multicellular
● Gets nutrients from ingestion
● AKA Consumers
● They develop through the life cycle
● Are able to move about
Emergent Properties:
○ Characteristics of a system that does not appear in the components
○ Appear at higher levels of classification
Scientific method
○ Observation that forms a question
○ Hypothesis
○ Experiment
○ Conclusion
Inductive/deductive reasoning
○ Inductive reasoning
■ Broad generalization made from specific observations
■ Ex. I am a 14 year old girl and have brown hair, therefore every 14 year old girl has brown hair.
○ Deductive reasoning
■ Specific observations made generalizations
■ Ex: All 14 year old girls have brown hair, I am a 14 year old girl, therefore
I have brown hair.
Graphical misrepresentation:
○ When a graph is distorted to deceive the viewer into thinking a certain way.
Homeostasis: the ability for an organism to maintain constant internal conditions in midst of the external environment.
Organelles
○ Cell Membrane
■ Offers support and protection for the cell
■ Is semi permeable
○ Cytoplasm
■ Is the jelly­like stuff inside the cell that the organelles hang out in.

○ Ribosomes
■ Performs protein synthesis
○ Nucleus
■ The “brains” of the cell
○ Nuclear Membrane
■ Similar to the cell membrane, but around the nucleus
○ Smooth ER
■ Performs lipid (fat) synthesis
○ Rough ER
■ Performs protein synthesis
■ Covered in ribosomes, which give it a “rough” appearance
○ Golgi Apparatus
■ Derived from the ER
■ Separates proteins and fats
■ Modifies molecules
■ Packages transport vehicles
○ Lysosomes
■ The “destroyers” of the cell
○ Vacuoles
■ Store food and water
■ One large central one in plants, and multiple small ones in animals
○ Mitochondria
■ THE POWERHOUSE OF THE CELL.
○ Chloroplasts
■ Performs photosynthesis
■ Filled with chlorophyll
○ Cytoskeleton
■ Helps the cell hold its shape.
○ Cell Wall
■ Only in plant cells
■ Helps the cell have more of a rigid shape
● Understand concentration, diffusion and osmosis
○ Diffusion: Molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration ○ Osmosis: The diffusion of water across a membrane
○ Solute: The substance that dissolves to form a solution
○ Solvent: The substance in which a solute dissolves
● A semi­permeable membrane is one in which the membrane allows some thing to pass through to the inside of the cell, and doesn’t allow other things

● Cell membrane
○ Structure:
■ 2 layers of phospholipids
■ Head is polar (likes water)
■ Fat tails are non polar (doesn’t like water)
■ Proteins are embedded in the membrane
● Hypertonic Solution
○ The solution has a higher concentration of solutes and a…