Biology Study Guide Essay examples

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What are the major difference between plant and animal cells, and what do these cellular differences mean for what plant cells can or can’t do, as compared to animals? How do plants differ from animals in how they solve one of the fundamental problems of being a multicellular organism: how to obtain energy?
What are the major tissue types in plants? How do they differ in structure and function? What are the major cell types in ground tissue? How do they differ?
What are the two primary organ systems in plants? What are the major organs of each? How are cells and tissues arranged in these organs? What are the functions of each of these organs? You should be able to sketch and label all of the above. Be able to describe how the major tissue and cell types are organized with the major organs, and how this differs between monocots and dicots as discussed.
Plants have many modifications to their roots, stems, and leaves. Form follows function in biology; be able to describe how these modified forms are related to their function.
Be able to define/explain: cotyledon, parenchyma, collenchyma, sclerenchyma, sclerids, fibers, root, shoot, stem, leaf, blade, petiole, ground tissue, dermal tissue, vascular tissue, xylem, phloem, root hairs, root cap, taproot, lateral roots, pneumatophores, buttress roots, tubers, rhizomes, stolons, stoma (stomata), apical bud, axillary bud

Understand and be able to describe/explain/draw the general cycle of alternation of generations. Know what stages are single cells and which are multicellular, as well as which are haploid and which are diploid. Know when meiosis occurs and when mitosis occurs. (You should know what happens in mitosis and meiosis from Biol 111; please see one of us (me, TA, SI) sooner rather than later if you are feeling uncomfortable with terms like haploid, diploid, meiosis, etc.)
Be able to describe/explain in detail (that is, in as much detail as discussed in class) the life cycles of green algae, bryophytes and angiosperms. Be able to compare/contrast the life cycles of green algae, bryophytes, and angiosperms. (I really, very strongly, recommend drawing these life cycles out. Most folks, I think, find it best to start with the general alternation of generations, then customize for bryophytes and angiosperms. Others, though, prefer to start with a specific life cycle because a “real thing” is easier to picture – in that case, start with bryophytes, and once that cycle makes sense and you’ve got it down cold, see how that relates to the general cycle, and think about how to change it for angiosperms.)
Understand and be able to describe the different parts of a flower and how they relate to alternation of generations in angiosperms. Where and how do microspores and megaspores develop, for example? Be able to describe the processes of spore production, gametophyte development, gamete production, pollination, double fertilization (how it happens, what are the results), seed development and fruit development. Be able to draw and label parts of a flower, parts of the female gametophyte, parts of the male gametophyte. What has to happen before fertilization can occur (i.e., what has to happen to get sperm to the egg?) Before and after fertilization, be able to identify the “ploidy” (haploid, diploid or triploid) of the cells in and around the female and male gametophytes (all parts of a flower, internal and external). (Drawing is a really useful way of learning anatomy; don’t worry about how “pretty” your drawings are, as long as they make sense!)
Be able to explain separation (or lack thereof) of the sexes in plants – in other words, be able to explain the differences between plants with complete flowers vs monoecious and dioecious plants. For which plants is self-fertilization a possibility, and how do plants limit self-fertilization?
Development of the embryo (embryogenesis):
With regard to embryogenesis, be able to explain (including being able to draw and…