Cell and Cellular Biology Essay

Submitted By crazy12dd
Words: 1809
Pages: 8

Biology

5-1

Cellular Biology
Cell Structure
General types of cellular structure:
• Prokaryote
(e.g., bacteria and blue-green algae)
• Eukaryote
(e.g., plants and animals)

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Biology

5-2

Cellular Biology: Cell Structure—Prokaryotes
Prokaryotes:
• Single-cell organisms with a primitive nucleus that lack a confining membrane
• Reproduce asexually by binary fission (dividing in two)
Components of prokaryotic cells:
• Periplasmic space, outer membrane, protoplasm
• Chromosome
• Ribosomes
• Peptooglycan
• Pilus, flagella

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Biology

5-3a

Cellular Biology: Cell Structure—Eukaryotes
Eukaryotes:
• Much larger
• Have a definite nucleus
• Most often part of a multi-cell organism Common components found in animal and plant cells:
• Mitochondria
• Plasma membrane
• Nucleus
• Endoplasmic reticulum
• Golgi complex

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Biology

5-3b

Cellular Biology: Cell Structure—Eukaryotes
Component found in animal cells only:
• Lysosomes
Components found in plant cells only:
• Chloroplast
• Tonoplast
• Central vacuole
• Starch granules
• Cell wall

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Biology

5-3c

Cellular Biology: Cell Structure—Eukaryotes
Example (FEIM):
Which of the following is NOT found in a eukaryote animal cell?
(A) mitochondria
(B) nucleus
(C) chloroplast
(D) lysosome
Eukaryote animal cells do not have chlorophyll or chloroplast.
Therefore, the answer is (C).

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Biology

5-3d

Cellular Biology: Cell Structure—Eukaryotes
Example (FEIM):
What is the function of the tonoplast in a eukaryote plant cell?
(A) encloses the vacuole
(B) provides a specialized cell substructure (organelle) where photosynthesis takes place
(C) converts oxygen, O2, to ozone, O3
(D) inhibits cell division
Tonoplast encloses the vacuole. Knowledge questions of this type sometimes have possible answers that can be eliminated because they are nonsense or they are unrelated to the subject. This improves the chances of guessing correctly. One should recognize answers (C) and (D) are unrelated to cell biology structure.
Therefore, the answer is (A).

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Biology

5-4

Cellular Biology: Cell Subdivision

This table is given in the NCEES Handbook – read and understand it.

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Biology

5-5a

Cellular Biology: Cell Growth
To study the cell growth rate of a species and how different conditions affect the cell growth, cell cultures are grown under controlled conditions with a controlled nutrient medium.

The growth pattern of a controlled culture of bacteria is shown in
FERM Fig. 33.3.

Growth phases of bacteria:
1. Lag phase
2. Accelerated growth phase
3. Declining growth phase
4. Stationary phase
5. Death phase

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Biology

5-5b

Cellular Biology: Cell Growth
Example (FEIM):
What is most nearly the growth rate of the population in the “Organismal
Growth in Batch Culture” chart in the
NCEES Handbook during the log growth phase? Use base-10 logarithms. (a) 23%/h

!

The curve point at t = 15 h is the origin.
Then, the elapsed time between the two points is 10 h. log 80 000 = m(10 h) + log 3000 m = 1.389%/h (39%/h)

(b) 39%/h

(c) 57%/h

The graph is linear during the exponent growth phase. The equation of a straight line involving N (number of bacteria) and t (time in hours) is log Nt = mt + log N0

(d) 245%/h

The population curve at 25 h crosses the seventh line above 104, so the population! 8 x 104 at 25 h. The is population curve also crosses the second line above 103 at 15 h, so the population is 3 x 103 at 15 h.

Therefore, the answer is (B).

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Biology

5-5c

Cellular…