Cell Theory | * Building blocks of which all living organisms are made * 1839- Matthias Schleiden and Theodor schwann stated their cell theory as follows: * All living things made up of cells * Smallest units of life * 1858 – Rudolf Virchow added to the theory saying; * all cells come from pre-existing cells * these three statements form modern day cell theory. * Robert Hooke helped in the development of the compound microscope, including the use of the iris diaphragm. * He used the microscope in 1665, too view a thin piece of cork. He was the first to describe what he saw as ‘pores or cells’. * Robert Brown identified structures inside plant cells. In 1831, he was the first to identify the nucleus as a large body found inside cells. | Magnification and Resolution | * Light microscopes- x1000 * Electron microscopes – x 1000000 * Microscopes allow us the distinguish two objects close together as separate objects. * The degree to which a microscope can do this is called resolving power. * 10^-6, 10 ^-9 | Cell contents | Light microscope- * Reveled that cells are not empty, and that protoplasm is not a uniform structure. * Certain structures in common * Defined shape or boundary * Cell membrane^ * Organelles have a particular job to do for the cell.organelles and the cell membrane are contually changing, breaking down and reforming in a dynamic patern of activity. * Nucleus seen. * And nucleolus and chromosomes.- by staining. * Cytoplasm looks like a clear fluid with particles in it. The fluid is known as cytosol. * Some mitochondria can be seen, but not in detail. * Chloroplasts contain the pigment chlorophyll, which gives plants their green colour.Plant cells – * Cytoplasm * Vacuoles * Chloroplast * Nucleus * Membrane * Cell wall * Nuclear membraneAnimal cells- * Cell membrane * Nucleus * Nuclear membrane * Cytoplasm * No cell wall * No large vacuoles * No chloroplasts | Substances in a cell | Organic- molecules always contain carbon atoms. The major groups of organic molecules found in cells are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acidsInorganic – molecules do not usually contain carbon atoms and are found in living and non-living things. Some simple carbon compounds, including CO2, are often considered to be inorganic even though they contain carbon.Carbohydrates are compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms (c,h,o) | Monosaccharides | Are the simplest carbohydrates, consisting of single units of sugar. | Disaccharides | Are also simple carbohydrates, consisting of double units of sugar. | PolysaccharidesEg- starch | Are complex carbohydrates consisting of multiple sugar units condensed to form huge molecules. | Lipids Eg- fats, oils, waxes | Contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, but the ratio of H to O is never 2:1. Very little oxygen. Usually insoluble. | Proteins | The most abundant organic molecules in cells, needed by the body for growth and repair.Contain C,H,O and N.Large molecules made up of smaller molecules called AMINO ACIDS joined together by PEPTIDE BONDS to form POLYPEPTIDE. | Nucleic Acids | Are organic molecules which contain linked sugar molecules, nitrogen bases and phosphate groups. | Tests for chemical substances | Protein – biuret - + purplrGlucose – Benedicts Solution - + orange/redStarch – iodine - + blue/blackLipid – brown paper - + translucent markChloride – silver nitrate - + white precipitation. | Membrane | * Fluid mosaic model. * Selectively permeable *…
Biology EOC Review
Goal 2: Learner will develop an understanding of the physical, chemical and cellular basis of life.
2.01: Compare and contrast the structure and functions of the following organic molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids.
|Macromolecules |Function |Subunits |
break the bonds between glucose units, and release glucose monomers and energy.
Cellulose – structural carbohydrate
Turquoise lines represent the electrostatic attraction of hydrogen bonds between glucose chains. This creates a tough fibrous molecule that is difficult to break down by hydrolysis.
Amino acids (20 different kinds of AA) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides).
Six functions of proteins:
Storage – albumin (egg white)
TASK 3 – FEASIBILITY REPORT
What is the SolarPaint?
• Solar Paint is an environmentally friendly solar cell
technology that will allow every household in Australia to
generate their own electricity, affordably and sustainably.
• This invention advances current technology by creating
solar cells that can be applied as flexible plastic coatings
and even paints that harvest the sun’s energy across
large areas to generate electricity.
Who owns the intellectual property…
An Overview of Respiration
I. Metabolism and Cell Respiration
A. Metabolism, the chemical reactions in an organism, has two complementary parts:
1. Synthesis reactions- which combine small, simple organic molecules to form more complex compounds such as, proteins and nucleic acids, for cell growth and maintenance(these reactions consume energy)
2. Decomposition reactions- which release energy by breaking down organic food molecules.
a. Organisms use this energy to make ATP, the major energy…
when the negative side of one polar molecule meets the positive side of another polar molecule. The bonds are similar because they all involve the smallest unit of matter, atoms, and they all focus on the valence electrons.
5) Why is pH important in Anatomy?
pH is important to anatomy because our bodies have to function at a stable pH. Many tasks cannot be performed if our body fluids are to acidic or to basic.
6-9) Name the 4 main Organic Molecules in Biochemistry. Describe each one…
Molecules, also known as groups of atoms bonded together, form chemical compounds that take part in a chemical reaction. Molecules use bonds to form into compounds. An ionic bond is a chemical bond in which the atom transfers electrons while a covalent bond is a chemical bond in which the atoms share electrons. A chemical formula is a way of expressing the information about what makes up the compound. Two examples of compounds are organic compounds, and inorganic compounds. Organic compounds…
Molecules and living organisms
The elements present in the largest proportions in living organisms are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur. The first three are the most abundant. Atoms of the element found in living organisms combine to form biologically important molecules linked by strong covalent bonds.
In a water molecule each hydrogen atom shares a pair of electrons with the oxygen atom forming a covalent bond.
The hydrogen has a slight positive charge…
different tissues and organs within the same organism. All cells have DNA, a membrane and cytoplasm. A cell's nucleus is a very important organelle. It controls all the processes within the cell. Some cells have a nucleus and some do not. All cells are divided into two large groups: cells with a nucleus, called eukaryotic cells, or simply eukaryotes; and cells without a nucleus, called prokaryotic cells, or prokaryotes.
All biological cells store their genetic information in the form of DNA. DNA is…
Coenzyme A - A small molecule that carries acetyl functional groups in cells. Composed of an acetyl group attached to a coenzyme A molecule. The starting product of the citric acid cycle.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) - The molecule from which cells derive energy. Comprised of an adenosine molecule bonded to three phosphates, each phosphate bond contains energy, especially the third bond. By breaking that one bond and reducing ATP to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the cell can get the energy to…