Dna and Cell Essay

Submitted By sebaszaira
Words: 1873
Pages: 8

Chap 1

addition of salt is no good and increases blood pressure.

e.g. of raising blood pressure
- exercise
- anxiety taking an exam

Baroreceptors- specialized neurons in blood vessel walls that sense change and monitor blood pressure. some they can sense they will send nerve impulses to the control center (brain) reacts, analyzes and sends out its own nerve impulses to the effectors (heart and arteries). Decrease in heart rate. Nerve impulses to the heart lower the heart rate. To decrease heart rate the blood vessels DILATE.

Assignment

POSITIVE FEED BACK
STRENGTHENS OR REINFORCES HE CHANGE IN THE BODY AND WILL ONLY REGULATE WITH AN INTERRUPTION SUCH AS LABOR AND

negative feed back - body creates a response that will always counter reacts stress

CHAP 2

PROTEINS
CARBOHYDRATES
LIPIDS
NUCLEIC ACID

MOLECULES ARE ESSENTIAL TO LIFE

compounds of carbon

All are organic bc they contain carbon in their structures

*** carbon along with H, O, N account for 96% of the body weight carbon valence # is 4 ( outer most orbit )

pg 44 Carbon and its functional groups table 2.5

Carbon always in all organic molecules

name and structure ( they are Macro LARGE and very important functionally within human cells within the body)

Hydroxyl R - O - H

Sulfhydryl

Carboxyl

Phospho

Amino

know their significance

C,H,O,N, Ca, P ( know their atomic #, mass, proton, neutron, electron)

PROTEINS - an important macro molecule often complex structure. and proteins in living cells had different functions in different human cells. I'm the structure of a protein you will always find C,H,O,N and sometimes Sulfur (S). Structurally protein are more complex than carbohydrates and lipids.
Classification of Proteins:
1. Structural proteins - provide a supportive frame work to a cell or provide support to the body EG keratin, collagen ( found in the hair and skin )collagen gives strength stronger than steal. old people with wrinkled skin from the sun id due to lose of collagen.
2. Contractile proteins - allow movement e.g. actin and myosin
3. Immunological proteins - defend us from infection e.g. antibodies (ABS) are proteins. function is to neutralize/ disable (not kill) antigens. making antigens less harmful.
4. Transport protein - e.g. hemoglobin & myoglobin (transports protein that is gong to transport carbon dioxide in the blood stream. Myoglobin found in muscle where it transports O in muscles
5. Catalytic Proteins - e.g. enzymes - chemical / protein they lower the energy of activation and allow a chemical reaction to progress very rapidly and generate chemical reactions in a cell.
6. Regulatory Protein - e.g. Hormones (within the human body not all of our hormones are classified as proteins and some are lipids) protein hormones : insulin (regulates blood sugar level), oxytocin ( speeds up uterus contractions) antidiaretic hormone ( regulates kidney function).

Structure of proteins:

made up of building blocks called amino acids

structural formula: H - H

Molecular formula: H2

structure of an amino acid are:

Central Carbon with 4 valences, a single Hydrogen, Carboxyl group ( COOH), Amino Group (H2N), "R" is not a chemical symbol R = rest or the remainder of the amino acid and must be replaced.

glycine is the most simple amino acid because it replaces the R group with an H.

ENZYMES- are proteins and are organic. Enzymes are always bigger than the substrate
Substrate the molecules enzymes work on.

Enzyme in diagram is sucrase ( all enzymes end in ase) is found on the surfaces of our small intestinal cells

enzymes of the body are classified into numerous categories and all don't break things down.

in most

chapter 3

prior to 1972 the model of the membrane bi layer did not exist it was call the "Sandwich Model" basically stating that there was a two layers of proteins one on the bottom and one on the top. Proteins…