1. Why was Great Britain the first country to industrialize?
GB had the capital that could be invested, a colonial empire, natural resources like coal, a variety of industries, and a strong navy.
2. How was the principle of intervention established at the Congress of Vienna used by the Great Powers to both support and repress revolution?
The super powers of Europe had the right to send armies into countries where there were revolutions in order to restore legitimate monarchs to power. Great Britain did not agree with this policy but it kept Europe out of war until World War I 100 years later.
3. Discuss the main ideologies of change in the first half of the 19th century. Which was the most powerful and why?
Conservatives believed society should have order, and that tradition maintains order. Liberals believed people should be as free from restraint as possible. Supporters were mostly middle class workers who believed in laissez-faire, no government interference except for defense, police and public works, and civil liberties for all. Socialists believed that human cooperation is superior to competition. They sought government assistance to solve social problems. Nationalism was the strongest ideology because it comes out when a population , invariably led by intellectuals, perceive a common enemy that they can unite against.
4. What accounted for the July Revolution in France? Explain the division of opinion in groups that favored the revolution. How was that conflict resolved? What was the effect of the July Revolution on Great Britain? he July Revolution was caused by the middle class's opposition to King Charles X's government. The first group that favored the revolution were those who critiqued the imposition of the death penalty for anyone profaning the Eucharist accused the King of complying with the Catholic Church and by doing so they were not guaranteeing religious equality. The second group that favored the revolution were significantly opportunistic. This is because of the provision for financial indemnities (or security) for property confiscated during the first empire of Napoleon. After Charles X issued the Four Ordinances, liberals were outraged and he went into exile in England. A constitutional monarchy was created under Louis Philippe. This year saw the election of Great Britain, the Great Reform Bill which was an effort to reform Parliament. Historian believed that the July Revolution influenced the voting but it was actually the result of a series of events different from those that occurred on the Continent.
5. What attitudes were emerging among the working people of Britain and France? What avenues were open to them for the improvement of their position?
The practice of confection in France caused the division of labor. Less skill was was being required by workers and therefore the skilled were being replaced by the less skilled due to their willingness to work for lower wages. These workers who were proud of their skills and frustrated by their social and economic expectations became the most radical political element in the European working class. Chartism was introduced and a Charter was issued with 6 specific reforms. Eventually several of these became laws. Continental working class observers saw that Chartism was the mass movement that workers must adopt to improve their situation.
6. Why did revolutions break out in so many different places at once in Europe in 1848? What can be said in general about these revolutions?
The causes of these revolts were the demands for constitutional government, peasant opposition to the manorial system in Central Europe, suppression of native languages like Czech, and of course nationism. Especially among Germans, Hungarians, Italians and Czechs. The revolution of 1848 began in France as a protest against voting restrictions, political corruption, and economic conditions. The French king abdicated and a new liberal…