Essay on Hepatitis B and Proper Work Practices

Submitted By jdacruz
Words: 2620
Pages: 11

How hepatitis B is spread
Introduction of blood or body fluid of an infected person to another through:- an opening or sore in the skin.
A puncture with a contaminated sharp such as a needle.
Or direct contact with mucous membranes that line the insides of the mouth, nose, eyes, and the genital organs.
HBV is not spread through casual contact, such as handshake, or through sweat.?

Spread of Hep B in the community

Spread of Hep B in the community
HBV is spread in the community through:????? * Sexual contact. * Drug abusers sharing contaminated needles. * An infant's exposure to its mother's body fluids.

Body fluids most likely to transmit HBV 3 of them ? * Blood * Semen * Vaginal Secretions * Pleural Fluid * Peritoneal Fluid * Pericardial Fluid * Cerebrospinal Fluid * Synovial Fluid * Amniotic Fluid * Blood contaminated saliva in dental procedures * Any fluid visibly contaminated with blood * Sweat uncontaminated by blood is not considered infectious.

Blood needed for transmission * The amount of blood needed to cause HBV infection is very small. One milliliter of blood contains up to 100 million infectious particles. * After the exposure, there is an incubation period that lasts between 45 and 180 days, with an average of 90 days. * Many individuals with acute HBV will have no symptoms at all. * Some will have a mild illness with loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue. * About 30% of infected individuals will develop clinical hepatitis with jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin and eyes due to liver dysfunction).

Serious outcome * A person infected with HBV can spread the virus soon after the initial infecting incident, and the infectious period continues through the acute and chronic illness.

Who is infected * Patients with Hepatitis B and other blood borne infections can appear healthy, so you can't tell whose blood is infectious.

Immunization * Hepatitis B vaccines are licensed in Canada. They provide safe, reliable protection from hepatitis B when used either before or immediately after exposure to the virus. * The annual number of occupational infections has decreased 95% since hepatitis B vaccine became available in 1982, from more than 10,000 in 1983 to less than 400 in 2001

Twinirix * Provides protection for both Hep A and Hep B * Rare side effects * Three doses over six months period?

How can HBV be prevented? * You can avoid exposure to Hepatitis B by taking the appropriate precautions, such as:? 3 * Receiving the immunization against Hepatitis B. * Following standard precautions. * Maintaining proper work practices. * Using proper techniques when handling materials which may be contaminated with blood or other potentially infected body fluids.
HIV

* HIV infection is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.HIV * The infection occurs when HIV enters a person's bloodstream, where it attacks and kills the helper T-cells.???WBC T-Cell * Helper T-cells are part of a group of white blood cells, known as lymphocytes, that are essential to the body in fighting off infections. * As the numbers of these cells decreases, so does the body's ability to fight infection.
Blood

How is HIV spread? * HIV is spread in the community just like HBV.

What happens after HIV infection * Days to weeks after exposure, the patient may begin to complain of fever, headache and fatigue. This may also be accompanied by a rash.??? * For the first several months after the infection, the exposed individual may be HIV antibody negative - this is called a "window" period.?? * The disease may remain silent in the patient for months to years, even with no treatment. * When the immune system is weakened enough, the patient will develop opportunistic infections and be classified as having AIDS (acquired…