History Final Study Guide Essay

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History Final Study Guide

Lisa Pizzagalli

Priest: people who lead the sermons in the church (are less powerful than a bishop)
Bishop: someone with a high social class who monitors church activity in a specific region Diocese: a governing body that includes several churches. An area that a bishop is in charge of
Cathedral: the head church of a region which the bishop rules
Archbishop: Someone who has authority over several dioceses so they oversee many governing bodies which include many churches
Patriarch: Used formerly as a title for the bishops of Rome, Constantinople, Jerusalem,
Antioch, and Alexandria
Pope: the leader of the Roman Catholic Church
Missionaries: people who deliver religious messages and spread religions
Germanic tribes

Kievan Rus: Kievan region
Rus: northern Europeans who helped the Slaves who were fighting among themselves on the Dnieper River
Yaroslav the wise: ruler during the height of Kievan Rus' power and prestige
­made many cultural and administrative improvements such as translating religious books from Greek to the Slavic language, he had an ambitious building program for
Kiev, and Russian law was codified. ­military record was mixed
Cyril: Greek monk sent to Moravia to convert Slavs to Christianity
­developed written alphabet for Slavic language (Cyrillic alphabet)
Methodists: Greek monk also sent to Moravia with Cyril to convert Slavs to Christianity
(achievements: the same as Cyril because they worked together
Cyrillic Alphabet: based mainly on the Greek alphabet; it is a written alphabet for the
Slavonic language
Vladimir I: Grand Duke of Kiev who gave up old beliefs and was baptized a Christian
­built libraries, schools, and churches

­made Christianity the state religion of Kievan Russia in 988
Alexander Nevsky: prince who encouraged the Russians not to rebel against their new masters and as a result the Mongols did not destroy as much in Russia as they had in other lands ­began to mess with Novgorod's internal affairs after he won the battle against the
Swedes but then Novgorod banished him ­fought against the Germans for Novgorod and won so he was named a hero
Clergy: people who lead the chur 1.Visigoths: Spain 2. Burgundians: Franks­France 3. Ostrogoths: Southern Germany. Eastern Europe
4. Lombards: Northern Italy 5. Anglo­Saxons: Britain
Celts
­lived in solitude
­architecture
­fasted
­scholar schools
­Ireland
­Abbots more powerful than the Benedictine abbots ­missionaries
­abbots there for spiritual guidance
St. Patrick: went from Britain to Ireland to spread the word of God and by his death, nearly all of Ireland was Christian Franks
­Clovis=first king of Franks to unite all Frankish tribes
­First Christian king to rule Gaul (France)
­After winning an important battle, became Christian along with 3,000 other Franks
Charlemagne:
­great military success and one of most important leaders
­Pope Leo III recognized his military skill so asked him for help when Lombards attacked Papal States in 774 (won)
­Charlemagne became king of the Lombards and the Franks
­when angry supporters of the previous pope attacked Leo and ran him out of Rome,
Charlemagne retrieved him and escorted him back to Rome (people thanked him by naming him Emperor of Roman Empire)
­during his rule Charlemagne improved the government by establishing a permanent capital, promoted education, preserved Christian teachings, and honored the traditional laws of the tribes

Secular: not pertaining to religion or the church
Monasteries: Civilizations of monks or nuns (ex: Benedictines and Celts)
Monasticism: Voluntary separation from society; usually in monasteries, to dedicate one’s life to God; prevalent in the Middle Age Monks and Nuns
1. Benedictines: the most common form of monasticism in most of Europe
­based on a combination of prayer and labor
­outlined a schedule for a monk’s day with nine…