The exact cause of lymphoma is still unknown, but some speculate that lymphomas could be hereditary, or that they are caused by viruses. Human T-Cell lymphoma and Burkitt's lymphoma seem to be strongly tied to the presence of viruses in the human body, Burkitt's being shown to occur more frequently in patients with the mononucleosis-causing Epstien-Barr virus in their bodies.
Occurrences of lymphoma are shown to be twice as frequent in males than in females, and non-Hodgkin's' lymphoma appears to increase in frequency with age. Lymphomas associated with Hodgkin's disease is extremely rare in children under the age of two, occurring most frequently in white males in their mid-thirties and -fifties.
Symptoms of lymphoma include the swelling of the lymph nodes in the neck and groin, weight loss, severe itching all over the body, fatigue, and the Pel-Ebstein fever pattern, characterized by high fevers in the evenings. The swelling of the affected lymph nodes is caused by the nodes producing excess lymphocytes, and histocytes. In the case of Hodgkin's disease, unique and unusually large cells called Reed-Sternberg cells are produced, which are easy to spot for their large, prominent nuclei. These cells are not produced under normal circumstances and thus they make Hodgkin's disease easy to identify and diagnose.
Before treatment of lymphomas can begin, the cancer must be staged, have its severity assessed. The appropriate treatment for a patient's lymphoma is determined by the severity of the tumor. Stage one lymphomas usually affect only one or two lymph nodes in one area. If the lymphoma is identified and treated at this stage with local radiotherapy, the patient has a 90% chance of being symptom-free after five years. Stage two lymphomas affect more glands than in stage one, over a larger area, requiring more generalized irradiation . Treatment after this stage will usually give the patient a 60% of being symptom-free after five years. Stages three…