Malnutrition: Nutrition and Food Processing Technologies Essay

Submitted By tristan1488
Words: 2160
Pages: 9

Malnutrition Main article: Malnutrition Malnutrition refers to insufficient, excessive, or imbalanced consumption of nutrients by an organism. In developed countries, the diseases of malnutrition are most often associated with nutritional imbalances or excessive consumption. Although there are more organisms in the world who are malnourished due to insufficient consumption, increasingly more organisms suffer from excessive over-nutrition; a problem caused by an over abundance of sustenance coupled with the instinctual desire (by animals in particular) to consume all that it can. Nutritionism is the view that excessive reliance on food science and the study of nutrition can, paradoxically, lead to poor nutrition and to ill health. It was originally credited to Gyorgy Scrinis,[62] and was popularized by Michael Pollan. Since nutrients are invisible, policy makers rely on nutrition experts to advise on food choices. Because science has an incomplete understanding of how food affects the human body, Pollan argues, nutritionism can be blamed for many of the health problems relating to diet in the Western World today.[63][64] [edit] Insufficient Under consumption generally refers to the long-term consumption of insufficient sustenance in relation to the energy that an organism expends or expels, leading to poor health. [edit] Excessive Over consumption generally refers to the long-term consumption of excess sustenance in relation to the energy that an organism expends or expels, leading to poor health and, in animals, obesity. It can cause excessive hair loss, brittle nails, and irregular premenstrual cycles for females. [edit] Unbalanced When too much of one or more nutrients is present in the diet to the exclusion of the proper amount of other nutrients, the diet is said to be unbalanced. [edit] Illnesses caused by improper nutrient consumption

Nutrients Deficiency Excess

Macronutrients

Calories Starvation, marasmus Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease

Simple carbohydrates Low energy levels. Obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease

Complex carbohydrates Micronutrient deficiency Obesity, cardiovascular disease (high glycemic index foods)

Protein Kwashiorkor Rabbit starvation, ketoacidosis (in diabetics)

Saturated fat Low testosterone levels, vitamin deficiencies. Obesity, cardiovascular disease

Trans fat None Obesity, cardiovascular disease

Unsaturated fat Fat-soluble vitamin deficiency Obesity, cardiovascular disease

Micronutrients

Vitamin A Xerophthalmia and night blindness Hypervitaminosis A (cirrhosis, hair loss)

Vitamin B1 Beri-Beri ?

Vitamin B2 Skin and corneal lesions ?

Niacin Pellagra Dyspepsia, cardiac arrhythmias, birth defects

Vitamin B12 Pernicious anemia ?

Vitamin C Scurvy Diarrhea causing dehydration

Vitamin D Rickets Hypervitaminosis D (dehydration, vomiting, constipation)

Vitamin E Neurological disease Hypervitaminosis E (anticoagulant: excessive bleeding)

Vitamin K Hemorrhage ?

Omega-3 fats Cardiovascular Disease Bleeding, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhagic stroke, reduced glycemic control among diabetics

Omega-6 fats None Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer

Cholesterol None Cardiovascular Disease

Macrominerals

Calcium Osteoporosis, tetany, carpopedal spasm, laryngospasm, cardiac arrhythmias Fatigue, depression, confusion, nausea, vomiting, constipation, pancreatitis, increased urination, kidney stones

Magnesium Hypertension Weakness, nausea, vomiting, impaired breathing, and hypotension

Potassium Hypokalemia, cardiac arrhythmias Hyperkalemia, palpitations

Sodium…