Nervous System and Sensory Systems Cerebrum Essay

Submitted By NyashaMdoka
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Biopsychology Revision Notes
The scientific study of the biological basis of behaviour (psychobiology, behavioural biology or behavioural or neuroscience)

Biological basis = brain activity, hormones, drugs etc
Behaviour = actions, thoughts, feelings, memories and perceptions etc

1. Introduction to Biopsychology and the Nervous System

Somatosensory cortex is an area of the brain that processes input from the various system in the in the body that are sensitive to touch – Pain and Temperature (detect pain, warmth and cold)

The Nervous System responsible for coordinating all of the body’s activities controls maintenance of normal functions body’s ability to cope with emergency situations made up of millions and millions of neurons


elongated fiber that extends from the cell body to the terminal endings & transmits the neural signal

The larger the axon, the faster it transmits info

Some axons are covered with a fatty substance called myelin that acts as an insulator.

Theses myelinated axons transmit info faster than other neurons

Afferent nerves (arrive) nerves that carry sensory signals to the CNS (sensory nerve) bring sensory input from the outside world

Efferent nerves(exist)
Nerves that carry motor signals from the central nervous to the skeletal muscles or internal organs
Brain stem
Stem like part of the brain that is connected to the spinal cord
-Controls flow of messages between the brain and the rest of the body
-and basic functions such as breathing, swallowing, heart rate, blood pressure, consciousness and whether one is awake or sleepy
-beneath the cerebrum

Nerves Bundle of axons in the peripheral nervous system

Central Nervous System (CNS)
The portion of the nervous system within the skull and spine. Opposed to the peripheral nervous system
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The portion of the nervous outside the skull and spine
-main function to connect the (CNS) to the rest of the body
-Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the bone of spine and skull, or by the blood-brain barrier, leaving it exposed to toxins and mechanical injuries
- divided into the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system; some textbooks also include sensory systems

Portion of the brain that sits on the brain stem
-plays a role in complex adaptive process e.g learning, perception and motivation, controls voluntary muscles
-store short and long term memo
Makes 85% of brains weight

Cerebral Hemisphere
One half of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing and learning

-below the cerebrum
-controls motor balance, movement, and coordination and muscle tone (how your muscles work together)
-composed of white matter and a thin, outer layer of densely folded gray matter

The outer layer of the cerebrum (cerebral cortex) composed of folded grey netter
-important role in consciousness
Parietal lobe
Located behind frontal lobe
-integrate sensory info from other parts of the body
-contains primary sensory cortex ( touch, hot or cold,…