Dear Cell Inc., Hello we are the Endoplasmic Reticulum. The Endoplasmic Reticulum does many things for Cell Inc. There are two different sections of E.R., the smooth E.R., and the rough E.R., each of them have different purposes. The smooth ER has Enzymes that help synthesize lipids, oils, phospholipids, and steroids. Its Enzymes also help digest food. There is a lot of smooth ER in the live because its Enzymes filter out the harmful toxins out of alcohol and other dangerous substances. The smooth ER also stores calcium ions that muscles use when they need to contract. Rough ER produces membrane. Rough ER turns ribosomes into proteins and then send the proteins to the Golgi apparatus packaging. The ER is extremely important to the survival of Cell Inc. Without membrane there would be nothing that organelles could move around in and they will be stuck in one place and then the cell would collapse. Also, if harmful toxins were not filtered out before they entered the blood stream then Cell Inc. would become intoxicated and die. Also without fats from Smooth ER cells would become filled with water and explode, also, without calcium ions from Smooth ER muscles would no longer be able to work. With just ribosomes and not proteins the cell will have no energy and will die but, when the Rough ER converts the Ribosomes into proteins the cell will have energy again. We cannot survive without Cell Inc. because the Nucleus is needed to produce Ribosomes. If there were any changes…
particles available to collide with the Hydrogen ions causing the reaction to shift faster.
2. The addition of the NaOH is the application of a stress to the equilibrium system. The NaOH dissociates into hydroxide ions and sodium ions. Hydroxide ions react with the iron (III) ions to produce iron (III) hydroxide. Therefore the concentration of the reactant iron ions is decreased causing the reaction to shift towards the reactant side to replenish the low iron ion levels. Thus the system forms a new equilibrium…
Draw a Bohr diagrams for the following ions
14. Is the ion of the following element positively or negatively charged?
15. State the ionic charge of each ion.
16. Do metals gain or lose electrons in an ionic bond?
17. Positive ions are called _______________.
18. Negative ions are called ______________.
carbon ceramic nanoparticles and self assembled calcium phosphate dihydrate particles to which glassy carbohydrates are then allowed to adsorb as a nanometer thick surface coating to form a molecular carrier. The carbohydrate coating functions as a dehydroprotectant and stabilizes subsequently non-covalently bound immobilized members of biochemically reactive surface members such as pharmaceuticals.
In 2000, Cherian et al. prepared aquasomes using calcium phosphate ceramic core for the parenteral delivery…
shell is a stable shell with eight electrons.
Polyatomic Ions are groups of two or more elements that have a charge associated with them as a group. They can in turn then bond to other elements or polyatomic ions to form more complex structures.
Rule 1. The cation is written first in the name; the anion is written second in the name.
Rule 2. When the formula unit contains two or more of the same polyatomic ion, that ion is written in parentheses with the subscript written outside…
Calcium: Medical Scientific and Industrial Applications
Calcium is an important component of a healthy diet and a mineral necessary for life.
The most abundant mineral in the body .Approximately 99 percent of the body's calcium is stored in the bones and teeth.
Calcium and Phosphorus join to form Calcium Phosphate a major component of the mineral complex (called Hydroxipatite ) that gives structure and strength to bones. Calcium plays an important role in building stronger, denser…
Ch.6- A Tour of the Cell
6.1- To study cells, biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry.
6.2- Eukaryotic cells have internal membranes that compartmentalize their functions.
In light microscopes visible light is passed through the specimen then through glass lenses that bend the light so that the image of the specimen is magnified.
Magnification is the ratio of an object’s image size to its real size.
Resolution is a measure of…
Primary macronutrients include Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P) and Potassium (K). Plants need so much of these nutrients to survive; therefore fertilisers are often added to cover due to the lack of amount found in soil. Secondary nutrients include Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Sulphur (S). Plants too use a large amount of these nutrients; however a mere amount when compared to the amount of primary nutrients needed. This results in fertilisation being unnecessary as the soil provides the appropriate…
(A Comparison of Ion Concentration and Park Age)
The objective of this project was to compare the content of the ions in drinking water samples collected from different parks of varying ages around Tucson. It was hypothesized that the water fountains in the older parks have the highest concentration of ions because the pipes which provides the water would likely be worn down more. This means that the water is then able to dissolve more ions from the inside of the pipes…
the proteins, therefore, that give each type of membrane in the cell its characteristic functional properties. Amount of protein in membrane varies depending on function (nerve 25%, those involved in ATP production 75%). Like membrane lipids, membrane proteins often have oligosaccharide chains attached to them that face the cell exterior. Thus, the surface that the cell presents to the exterior is rich in carbohydrate, which forms a cell coat.
Transmembrane Proteins (integral proteins)…