Seedless Plants Essay

Submitted By PsnKillerB199
Words: 766
Pages: 4

Algae
Algae in general * Multicellular and aquatic * Lack vascular tissue

Structure of Algae * Holdfasts- Compensate for the lack of rigid supportive stem * Floats- Provide buoyancy * Stipes- Stem-like structures * Blades- Broad photosynthetic structures that float on or near the surface of the water

Nutrients * Lack vascular tissue * Rely on diffusion for the distribution of materials inside their tissues

Red Algae – Phylum Rhodophyta * Contains chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-d * Has the accessory pigment, phycobilin, which absorb blue wavelengths of light * Live at the greatest ocean depths * Marine habitats

Brown Algae – Phylum Phaeophyta * Contain chlorophyll-a, and chlorophyll-d, * Have the accessory pigment, fucoxanthin * Shades of yellowy-brown * Store food as specialized starches and oils * Marine habitats

Green Algae – Phylum Chlorophyta * Contain chlorophyll-a, and chlorophyll-b * Green * Manufacture starch as a storage carbohydrate * Cell walls made of cellulose * Fresh water and marine habitats

Mosses – Phylum Byrophyta – Class Musci
Difficulties of life on land * Plants need a constant supply of water to deliver materials to and transport wastes away from the cells * Plants need light for photosynthesis but too much light will dry plant tissues exposed to air due to the increased evaporation of water * Gas exchange- In water, CO2 is dissolved in it and plants can obtain it by diffusion. Land plants need a different mechanism * Reproduction- Aquatic organisms produce swimming cells which use water to move around, on land, these cells are in constant danger of drying out

Mosses in general * All byrophytes are typically small land plans * Lack vascular tissue * Balance their need of sunlight again their need of water * Live in water abundant areas such as forested areas, along the sides of streams, in the shade * Gametophyte general is most often seen * Small, green (photosynthetic), leafy, and grows into a carpet-like covering * The moss gametophyte is actually a collection of intricate tiny plants Structure of Mosses * Rhizoids- Tiny root-like structures that anchor non-vascular plants to the ground * Seta- The “stem” of the sporophyte * Leaves- Photosynthetic, non-vascular, leaves on the gametophyte * Capsule- Releases spores and is on the very top of the sporophyte

Nutrients * Lack vascular tissue * Adapted to surviving on land without being able to transport water * Relies on the properties of water, like capillary action and osmosis, for nutrient transport * Since it relies on water for nutrient distribution, it cannot grow too large

Reproduction * Male moss produces flagellated sperm in structures called antheridia * Females develop an ovum in an archegonium * Sperm swim in order to reach an ovum * The sporophyte develops from the zygote while it is still enclosed by the cells of the archegonium * This sporophyte is not fully photosynthetic and relies on the nourishment from the gametophyte * Spore capsules are designed to propel spores away from the capsule to aid in their dispersal

Ferns – Phylum Tracheophyta
Ferns in General * Have vascular tissue * Less restricted in their possible habitats * Range from only centimeters tall to being “tree-like”

Structure of…