Unit 13, task 1.
P1 – Describe the microstructure of a typical animal cell and the functions of the main cell components. A typical animal cell is seen as a tiny, three dimensional sac which is in fact made up of many components, each as important as the other. The microstructure of an animal cell was in fact uncovered mainly through the use of both cell fractionation and electron microscopy. Each main component has its own, individual function which helps a cell to function and maintains the cell membrane. The components that I will be describing include the cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi bodies, centrioles, endoplasmic reticulum (both smooth and rough) and ribosomes.
The cell membrane - The cell
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The structure of it is seen as layers in comparison to that of smooth endoplasmic reticulum which is seen as tubular .The structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is also made up of interconnected sacs which are known as cisternae. It has only one membrane which encloses a single space and the nuclear outer membrane is continuous to it. This is done because proteins are collected in the rough endoplasmic reticulum so that they can then be transported throughout the animal cell. The main function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is to make proteins that are then secreted from the cell. The proteins that are collected and transported via the rough endoplasmic reticulum are known as secretory and lysosomal proteins. They are mainly transported from the rough endoplasmic reticulum to the cis face of the Golgi cisternae. In terms of the ribosomes making the proteins which are transported through the rough endoplasmic reticulum, messengerRNA is that which takes the message that has been transcribed by the DNA (DeoxyriboNeclueicAcid) in the animal cells nucleus to the ribosome so that it knows what to do and it is usually carried out in the cytoplasm on clusters of ribosomes and the transferRNA is that which helps translate the message that has been sent through the DNA by bringing the anticodon. The transferRNA also brings amino acids which go on to bond in order to form a polypeptide