Uncertainty Reduction Theory The Uncertainty Reduction Theory is a theory that was discovered by Charles Berger, a professor of communication at the University of California. The theory basically explains the uncertain feeling people have when meeting strangers, and how communication is used to gain knowledge and create understanding. This theory has been studied over time to help us reduce the uncertainty we feel when meeting new people. There are many different parts to this theory, including the eight axioms, the seven assumptions, the three types of interactive strategies. Also included in the theory is three prior conditions that are boosted by the uncertainty of meeting new people. According to the text, uncertainty reduction is the increased knowledge of what kind of person another is that provides an improved forecast of how a future interaction will turn out. There are three prior conditions which help boost these uncertain feelings. They are, anticipation of future interaction, incentive value and deviance. There are two types of uncertainty, which are behavioral and cognitive. Behavioral uncertainty is the extent to which behavior is predictable in a situation. According to the text, there are accepted procedural protocols to ease the stress that behavioral uncertainty can cause. The other type of uncertainty is cognitive, which is aimed at discovering who the person is as a unique individual. These two types of uncertainty help to predict and explain. When dealing with this theory there are seven assumptions. People experience uncertainty in interpersonal settings, uncertainty is an aversive state, generating cognitive stress, when strangers meet, their primary concern is to reduce their uncertainty or increase predictability, interpersonal communication is a developmental process that occurs through stages, interpersonal communication is the primary means of uncertainty reduction, the quantity and nature of information that people share change through time and it is possible to predict people’s behavior in a lawlike fashion. To help reduce uncertainty three strategies are used, passive, active and interactive. Passive strategy takes the role of observers who don’t bother other people. Active strategy arises when asking a third party about a person and interactive strategy is formed through face to face discussion with a person. To better explain this theory Charles Berger proposed a serious of axioms. Axioms are self evident truth that requires no additional proof. There are a total of eight, which are, verbal communication, nonverbal warmth, information seeking, self disclosure, reciprocity, similarity, liking and shared networks. These eight axioms helped Berger generate 28 theorems. Theorems are a proposition that logically and necessarily follows from two axioms. In 2007 researchers by the names of Aparana Hebbani and Lawrence Frey got together and did a study of the uncertainty reduction theory. The experiment was applying uncertainty reduction theory to the study of nonverbal behavior between U.S. interviewers and Indian applicants. According to the case, using uncertainty reduction theory, the study examined the effects of similarity/dissimilarity of interviewers’ and interviewees’ nonverbal behaviors exhibited during an intercultural hiring interview on interviewers perceptions of hiring decisions about interviewees. They did mock interviews between Indian graduate student interviewees and Caucasian U.S. professionals who served as interviewers. The interviews were taped and a studied side by side to compare. They lasted 16.5 minutes on average and showed that their results were consistent with Berger’s reasoning. Attributional confidence was positively affected by cultural similarity and interpersonal attraction and attitude similarity were positively correlated. Being culturally similar was associated with decreased uncertainty, and attitudinal similarity was associated with increased…
chosen should afford the candidate the opportunity to demonstrate understanding of physics at an Advanced GCE standard.
What are the aims?
One of the central features of the course is the emphasis placed on learning physics through the interplay of theory and experiment – so that candidates understand where ideas come from, how they make sense and how they may be used. This is made possible through the range and variety of illustrative experiments, practical demonstrations and investigations that candidates…
communication theories are used during personal and professional day-to-day activities. Communication theories investigate both verbal and nonverbal communication. Communication theories are beneficial to personal and professional communication styles. There are different advantages to each communication theory. Communication theory provides friendship enhancements. Communication theories also enhance work relationship and bring closeness in families. This paper will reflect on Uncertainty Reduction Theory…
Decision of Uncertainty
Decision: Extending automobile warranties or not?
It comes a time when one has to make that decision of extending an automobile warranty when it has expired. Because auto warranties provide well needed protection, it does not come cheap be any means. Therefore, the decision to be made is the price of purchasing a warranty over the cost of repairs without a warranty. An extended warranty supplies the ability of possessing coverage of an automobile…
Brashers Reaction Paper
Communication and Uncertainty Management focuses on the experience and meaning of uncertainty, the role of appraisal and emotion in uncertainty management, and the range of behavioral and psychological responses to uncertainty. Firstly, Brashers explains, “uncertainty exists when details of situations are ambiguous, complex, unpredictable, or probabilistic; when information in unavailable or inconsistent; and when people feel insecure in…
ABACUS, Vol. 24, No. I , I988
S. J. GRAY
Towards a Theory of Cultural Influence on the
Development of Accounting Systems
Research has shown that accounting follows different patterns in different
parts of the world. There have been claims that national systems are
determined by environmental factors. In this context, cultural factors have
not been fully considered. This paper proposes four hypotheses on the
relationship between identified cultural characteristics and…
framework to analyse and find out the applicability of his theory to evaluate a foreign culture when any business operating in overseas and later a brief comparison with other frameworks will be given.
Geert Hofstede defines how the values of a society`s member are effected by the culture and how they make link with individual behaviour by this model.
Six dimensions in Hofsted`s theory are Power Distance, Individualism, Uncertainty avoidance, Masculinity, Long Term Orientation, indulgence…
Standard Reduction Potentials
Standard reduction potential (E0) is the potential associated
with a reduction reaction at an electrode when all solutes are
1 M and all gases are at 1 atm (standard conditions)
Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) = accepted reference point
2e- + 2H+ (1 M)
H2 (1 atm)
Standard potential assigned to E0 = 0 V
All other standard reduction
potentials are measured relative
to the SHE reference
Standard Reduction Potentials
Environmental uncertainty has become an important topic in management because it has many influences on managers and organizations.This essay will firstly describe the definition of environmental uncertainty and then gives examples of the impact that the environment uncertainty has on managers and organizations such as rising failure rates,.Finally,it will talk about the measures that managers or organizations used to minimize the influence of environmental uncertainty via example.
Uncertainty Reduction Theory
“The Vow” and “Meet the Parents”
Uncertainty reduction theory is “the point of view that uncertainty motivates communication and that certainty reduces the motivation to communicate” (Wood, definition). This theory was first developed by Charles Berger. He believed that when people are to meet for the first time they have a high level of uncertainty and the only way for them to reduce it is to communicate with one another. “They don’t know what each other likes…