AChapter 27: The Plant Kingdom : Seedless Plants Plant Constitution/Adaption Cuticle- important adaption- covers aerial portion of plant, minimizes desiccation (drying out). Moist habitat= thin cuticle. Drier environment= thicker cuticle. Negligible area for gas exchange. Stomata- in almost all plants- facilitate gas exchange. On leaves/stems of plant. Gametangia- sex organs of multicellular plants. Each organs has sterile cells that protect gametes (egg/sperm cells). Fertilized egg develops into multicellular embryo in female. Charophytes/Stoneworts- green algae- plant probably arose from these. Ferns & other vascular plants: Xylem- conduct water/dissolved material. Phloem- conduct dissolved sugar. Lignin- strengthens cell wall, support conduction, maximum light reception (causes stiffness). Alternation of Generation Plants spend part of life in haploid gametophyte generation and other part in diploid sporophyte generation. Gametophyte generation- Produces haploid gametes via mitosis in antheridia (male gametangia, make sperm cells) and archegonia (female, produce eggs) Gametes fuse to form diploid zygote. Sporophyte generation- zygote develops within archegonium into multicellular embryo. Embryo → mature sporophyte plant--> sporogenous cells--> spores (first stage of gametophyte generation and after sporogenous cells meiosis). All plants= spores by meiosis. Algae/Fungi= spores by mitosis/meiosis. Seeded Vascular Plants (General)- Gymnosperms & Angiosperms (flowering plants) Gymnosperms- naked seeds- seeds borne unprotected in a cone. Angiosperms- most recent- seeds enclosed & protected within a fruit. The Bryophytes- Seedless General: Non vascular, lack conduction system thus small size, rely on diffusion & osmosis, disperse via haploid spores, earliest plants to colonize land, lack xylem/phloem, only plants with dominant gametophyte generation. Sporophytes dependent on gametophyte for nutrition so they are attached. Moss-Phylum Bryophyta- gametophytes grow from protonema. Rhizoids anchor to soil. Lack true leaves, roots, & stems. Sphanum- commercial moss- soil conditioner. Spanish moss-misnomer- angiosperm. Apparent Alternation of Generation: Gametophyte bears gametangia at apex. Zygote(egg + sperm in archegonium) + mitosis→ Embryo → moss sporophyte attached to gametophyte. Gametophyte has a foot, seta, and a capsule with sporogenous cells. Meiosis in capsule results in haploid spores. Spore germinates in to protonema. Protonema → Buds → gametophytes. Liverworts- Phylum Hepatophyta- gametophytes flattened, lobed thalli, others leafy. Asexual reproduction- 1)involved gemmae that disperse via raindrops/animals. 2) Thallus branching. Hornwort- Phylum Anthocerophyta- thalloid gametophytes. Gametangia embedded in thallus. Seedless Vascular Plants- has vascular tissues (xylem & phloem), dominant sporophyte generation, depends on…
Biology Half Sheet
1. Humans are classified like any other organism by their kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. Humans are in the kingdom Animalia. This is because we are heterotrophs and are multicellular. Humans are in the phylum Chordata. This is because we have a backbone. We belong in the class Mammalia because we give milk, have hair all over, and we give birth to offspring. We are in the order Primates because we have and opposable…
The Kingdom Of Norway
By: Paige Sovey
November 30, 2011
Norway’s official name is “The Kingdom of Norway” and it is located in Northern Europe on the western and northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. Norway has a long land border with Sweden to the east, a shorter one with Finland in the northeast and a still shorter border with Russia in the far northeast (Fouberg 2004). Norway has a land area of 125,182 square miles, making it slightly larger than…
Domain and Kingdom Review-
1) what are the names of the three domains?
Archae, Bacteria and Eukarya
2) Provide examples of each Domain:
Archae- prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that live in the most extreme environments
i) methanogens: organisms that live in digestive tracts of organisms, and anaerobic (NO O2) environments of swamps and marshes that produce methane (CH4)
ii) halophiles: ("salt lovers") which require light as their energy source
iii) thermoacidophiles: grow in thermal…
the world we live in came to be what it is.
History provides insight into present human behavior
Human history overview
People lived by hunting and gathering for hundreds of thousands of years
Only 10,000 years ago did humans learn to cultivate plants, herd animals, and make airtight pottery to store food.
River valley civilizations developed just 5,000 years ago which led to better harvest and ultimately increased populations
These river valley civilizations—ie Nile, Indus, Tigris/Euphrates—invented…
Plants Cells & Tissues
Cell Type | Function | Where Found |
Parenchyma | Photosynthesis | Ground Tissue |
Collenchyma | Support | Ground Tissue |
Sclerenchyma | Seeds | Ground Tissue |
The 3 types of plant tissues are: dermal, ground, and vascular.
List the 2 types of vascular tissue and give the function of each.
Xylem transports waters and minerals.
Phloem transports photosynthetic products.
The dermal tissue is the tissue system that…
The life history traits of the plant (generation time, number of seeds, success of germination,
Life cycle: Perennial, produces seeds several times a year under favorable conditions
Number of seeds produced: 2 lbs seeds per acre
483,600 seeds per pound
Success of germination: 70-90%
Flowers: small, inconspicuous flowers (under 1”)
Bloom Color: White
Bloom Time: May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov
Growth habit: graminoid (Grass or grass-like plant)
The Middle Kingdom
BY: D. Leonard
The middle kingdom was Egypt's Golden Age. Trade flourished, and so did arts and literature. Egypt built strong armies to defend themselves against her neighbors. During the time period of the middle kingdom, pharaohs were expected to be good kings and wise rulers. Instead of building huge expensive pyramids, when pharaohs died, they were buried in hidden tombs. These tombs were all over ancient Egypt. Most probably,…
A Quick Guide to APA
Times New Roman size 12 font, make sure to change the default font from Calibri
Left-aligned running head at the top of every page in all caps
On title page:
Running head: TITLE OR SHORTENED TITLE
(Your title should be no longer than 12 words and should not exceed 50 characters, including the words “Running head”, all letters, punctuation, and spaces between words. See pp. 23 and 229 respectively.)
On subsequent pages:
ondon is the capital of the United Kingdom. It ranks as one of the world?s most historic cities, tracing its roots back nearly 2000 years. London has long been a great world port and trading center. The port of London consists of two huge docks and 43 miles of wharves along the Thames River. London also has a remarkable transportation system. Expressways, and underground and surface railways carry more than one million commuters between the outlying areas and central London each workday. More than…